Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Raffles' Trick and The Anglo-Dutch Treaty

                                                        Sir Stamford Raffles
Raffles' Trick

Raffles wanted to establish a trading settlement in Singapore. He had a meeting with Temenggong Abdul Rahman.
The Temenggong was a senior minister of the Johor-Riau Sultanate. Raffles wanted to set up a trading settlement
in Singapore. Even though Temenggong agreed but he informed Raffles that the island was ruled by Sultan Abdul Rahman of the Johor-Riau Sultanate.

The British was not afraid of the Dutch even though they are having a war with France in Europe at the same time.
Holland was located between British's enemy therefore Britian wanted to ensure that Holland remain a buffer state.

Sultan Abdul Rahman also the Sultan of Singapore was under the Dutch influence.
It meant that the Dutch would not allow the British to set up a settlement in Singapore.
During the discussion, Temenggong explained to Raffles how Tengku Abdul Rahman had become the Sultan instead of his elder brother, Tengku Hussein.

There were two princes, Tengku Hussein who was the elder son, and Tengku Abdul Rahman, the younger son.
When their father passed away, only Tengku Abdul Rahman, the younger son, was present.
The elder son, Tengku Hussein who could have been the new Sultan, was away in Pahang.
The Bugis chiefs in Riau made Tengku Abdul Rahman the new Sultan as it was also supported by the Dutch.
The supportors of Tengku Hussein, like the malay chiefs, were unhappy but all they could do was watched as the Dutch were too powerful for the malay chiefs.
When Tengku Hussein found ou that Tengku Abdul Rahman became the new Sultan, he had no choice but to go and live quietly on one of the Riau islands.

After hearing the story, Raffles had a plan. The British recognise Tengku Hussein as the rightful ruler of the Johor-Riau Sultante as he was the heir.
Tengku Hussein agree, thus he was crowned as the new Sultan and signed a treaty on 6 February 1819 with Raffles. Singapore became the British possession.
These are the Terms of the Treaty :
1. Tengku Hussein was recognized as the Sultan of Johor.
2. British was given the southern part of Singapore to set up a trading settlement.
3. The sultan would be paid an allowance of $5000 per year.
4. The Temenggong would be paid $3000 per year.

The Dutch found out and they were very upset with Raffles. The British government was very upset too as they did not understand why Raffles had to upset the Dutch when England is having a war with France.
The British and Dutch signed another treaty in 1824 to solve their conflict. It is called " The Anglo-Dutch Treaty"
The terms :
The treaty will split the Malay Archipelago into two spheres of control.
1. Bencoolen and Indonesia will belong to the Dutch.
2. Melaka, Singapore and Penang will belong to the British.

Even though Singapore became a British Possession on 6 February 1819, we only became a colony on 2 August 1824 after the "Anglo-Dutch Treaty"


  1. Are there any pictures of the treaties the sultan hussein signed?

    1. I remember seeing an illustration of that in my Malaysian history textbook for Form 2(secondary year 2).